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DNS stands for Domain Name System. Commonly known as phonebook of the internet, DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can retrieve the necessary information.
For example, every machine on the internet, be it laptops or your web servers have a unique IP address. So when you enter a domain name, for instance, www.example.com, it's respective IP address is mapped with the help of DNS and the webpage is loaded accordingly.
DNS records are text files that contain holistic information about the paritcular domain name including it's IP address, alias names etc. The following are some of the common DNS records: